英国医院开售电子烟!——电子烟的命,谁说了算?

2019年7月10日,英国泰晤士发表了一篇报道,大意说的是英国医院开始销售电子烟了。这是大事,说明英国医疗体系对电子烟的认可达到全新高度。我将报道简要翻译如下,以供所需:

LONDON — Two hospitals in England have allowed an e-cigarette company to open vape shops on their premises as part of a move by the hospitals to ban smoking in and around their buildings.

英国伦敦的两家医院允许电子烟公司在院内开店售卖,此举是医院禁烟行动的一部分。

The ban was introduced last week at two of the largest health institutions in the Birmingham area as “a public health necessity,” according to the BBC, because “smoking kills.”

英国广播公司报道称,伯明翰地区两家最大的医疗机构上周开始引入这条政策,并将电子烟称之为“公共卫生必需品”,原因是“吸传统香烟致死”。


“Given that simple truth, we can no longer support smoking on our sites, even in shelters or cars,” said Dr. David Carruthers, the medical director of Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals N.H.S. Trust, which oversees the hospitals.“

鉴于这个简单的事实,我们不能再支持吸烟,即使是在吸烟棚或汽车中,”

Sandwell和West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust的医疗主管David Carruthers博士说。


Ashtrays have been removed from the hospitals’ outdoor smoking areas, and anyone caught smoking on the premises faces a fine of 50 pounds, or $62. The use of e-cigarettes is allowed on the hospitals’ grounds, aside from near doorways, and former smoking shelters have been turned into vaping areas.

医院的室外吸烟区已经不再设有烟灰缸,吸烟将面临50英镑或62美元的罚款。但是,医院可以使用电子烟(除门口外),并且以前的传统吸烟区已经变成了电子烟吸烟区。

The two vape shops are operated by the e-cigarette company Ecigwizard.

这两家电子烟店由Ecigwizard公司经营。


The National Health Service in England attributed more than 480,000 hospital admissions to smoking in a one-year period from 2017 to 2018. And figures published this month by the N.H.S. showed that 77,800 people in England had died from smoking-related illness during that period.

英国国民健康服务中心发现,在2017年至2018年的一年内,有超过48万人因为吸烟而住院。本月由NHS公布的数据显示,在此期间,英国有77,800人死于和吸烟有关的疾病。

Just over 14 percent of adults in England are smokers, according to the N.H.S., and more than 6 percent of adults use e-cigarettes, double the share in 2014. Half of e-cigarette users in the N.H.S. study said they had switched to vaping to quit smoking.

据NHS统计,英国14%以上的成年人是吸烟者,超过6%的成年人使用电子烟,是2014年的两倍。在NHS研究中,有一半的电子烟用户表示他们已经通过电子烟戒烟。
Smoking was first banned inside British hospitals in 2007, and health officials have urged N.H.S. hospitals to make their premises entirely smoke-free since 2013. 

2007年,英国医院首次禁止吸烟,自2013年以来,卫生官员一直敦促NHS在医院全面禁烟。

Most British hospitals have since banned smoking on their grounds, and the image of patients wheeling their IV drips to outdoor smoking areas has largely disappeared.

目前,大多数英国医院已经禁止吸烟,患者拿着吊瓶去外面吸烟的情形也已基本消失。
Despite the growing prevalence and popularity of vaping around the world, the practice has met with criticism. Saying that e-cigarettes were creating a nicotine epidemic among teenagers, San Francisco last month banned their sale entirely.

 尽管电子烟在世界各地越来越普及,但这种做法遭到了批评。由于担心电子烟在青少年中流行而引发尼古丁的危害,旧金山上个月完全取缔了电子烟的销售。


Critics of the products in the United States say they are becoming the tobacco industry’s new way to hook teenagers.

美国批评者认为,电子烟正在成为烟草业扼杀青少年的新方式。


But in Britain, public health officials have embraced the use of e-cigarettes as effective for people who want to quit smoking. 

但在英国,公共卫生官员认可电子烟对戒烟的效果。

An independent report on e-cigarettes published last year by England’s public health agency concluded that vaping posed “only a small fraction of the risks of smoking” and that switching completely to vaping brought “substantial health benefits.”

英格兰公共卫生机构去年发布的一份关于电子烟的独立报告认为,电子烟“只有非常小的风险”,并且完全转向电子烟将带来“实质性的健康益处”。

The agency, Public Health England, subsequently recommended that e-cigarettes be available for sale in hospital shops to help create a smoke-free environment and to encourage patients and employees to quit smoking.

英国公共卫生部随后建议在医院商店出售电子香烟,以帮助创造无烟环境,并鼓励患者和员工戒烟。

“It’s not as radical as it might first appear,” Dr. Debbie Robson, a researcher in tobacco addiction at King’s College London, said of the Birmingham hospitals’ new policy. She said e-cigarettes were allowed in most mental health hospitals in Britain, including indoors.

伦敦国王学院烟草成瘾研究员黛比罗布森博士谈到伯明翰医院的新政策时说:“它并不像最初看起来那么激进。” 她说,英国的大多数医院都允许使用电子烟,甚至是室内。

Dr. Robson said Britain’s public health authorities agreed that switching completely to e-cigarettes was far safer than smoking regular cigarettes, an argument that the independent report also addresses.

罗布森博士表示,英国公共卫生当局一致认为,完全转用电子烟远比吸食普通卷烟更安全。

Although nicotine fuels addiction to cigarettes, the drug itself is not what causes the gravest health dangers, said Ann McNeill, the public health report’s lead author and a professor of tobacco addiction at King’s College London.

公共卫生报告的主要作者,伦敦国王学院烟草成瘾教授安·麦克尼尔说,虽然尼古丁成瘾,但这种药本身并不会导致严重的健康危害。

“The toxic smoke is the culprit and is the overwhelming cause of all the tobacco-related disease and death,” she said in the report.

“有毒烟雾才是罪魁祸首,是所有烟草相关疾病和死亡的最大原因,”她在报告中说。
The report said that regular use of e-cigarettes in the country was almost entirely confined to those who have smoked previously. And the N.H.S. report found a significant drop in smoking rates among young people — down to 6 percent in 2016, compared with close to 20 percent in 2001.

该报告说,该国经常使用电子烟的用户几乎完全是烟民。NHS报告发现年轻人的吸烟率大幅下降 – 从2001年接近20%已经降至2016年的6%。

Dr. Robson said that being admitted to a hospital could be a powerful trigger to reflect on smoking. And the hospitals that are most effective in reducing smoking are those that “have a tobacco dependence treatment pathway embedded in the hospital services,”  rather than simply banning smoking.

罗布森博士表示,住院可能是让烟民意识到吸烟有害的一种触发方式。她说,医院最有效减少烟民吸烟的方式是“在医院中提供烟草依赖治疗服务”,而不是简单地禁止吸烟。

报道就翻译完了,其中有个名词NHS,我解释一下。NHS是英文National Health Service 的简称,即英国国家医疗服务体系。这个体系一直承担着保障英国全民公费医疗保健的重任,遵行救济贫民的选择性原则。

提起免费医疗,我再多说几句。英国的免费医疗是让很多外国人羡慕的,1946英国通过了《国民医疗服务法案》,并于1948年7月5日正式实施。这个法案完善了英国早期的社会医疗保险体系,确定了以下原则:

1.全民享受免费医疗。无论年龄、贫富、职业,均享有平等的医疗服务,全部免费。

2.免费医疗服务按需提供,而不是按支付能力提供。

按照原先的《济贫法》(1563年通过)和《国民保险法案》(1911年通过),只有缴纳了社会保险金的职工,或者是贫困民众才可以享有免费医疗服务。这就导致很多没有缴纳社会保险金的民众只能自费看病,医保覆盖率相当有限。修改这种不合理制度的呼声越来越高。1941年10月9日,英国政府宣布医改方案并进行缜密论证。但是因为二战影响,新方案直到1946年才公布,又经过两年准备于1948年实施,开启了“全民医疗服务制度(NHS)”。

此后至今,英国政府的全民免费医疗都是建立在《国民医疗服务法案》的基础上的,而且越来越完善,在医疗系统、信息共享、财政管理上也是与时俱进。除了从1952年起对每位病人收取1先令的处方费之外,全民免费医疗被一直贯彻至今,成为世界典范。也无怪乎在泰晤士报的调查《20世纪英国最伟大的成就是什么》中,有近半数英国人回答“全民医疗服务制度。”

也恰恰是因为“全民医疗服务制度”导致了英国对电子烟采取接纳和推广的态度。因为医疗免费的国家负担不起,传统香烟的危害所带来的巨大财政支出。所以不只是英国,只要是全民免费或者是医疗福利政策好的国家,都支持电子烟,比如,加拿大,新西兰,日本。这就是为什么英国和美国对电子烟的态度不同的原因。

2019年以来,电子烟行业在中国也成为了创业的新风口,无数人怀揣着飞猪上天的梦想,一下子涌进来。可是315对电子烟点名,各大主流媒体的危害论报道,渐渐给这个看似蓝海的市场,蒙上了一层灰纱,谁也看不清纱布下面究竟是什么颜色。

这让我想起前段时间火爆的电影哪吒。哪吒以为自己是灵珠,没想到却是魔丸。电子烟生来就像哪吒,担着魔丸的命,操着灵珠的心,还希望拯救苍生黎民,可惜百姓都怕你。

老祖宗说,人命,天定。生在农村和生在城里的孩子,注定命运不同。现在看来,不只是人,电子烟也有命。

电影里,哪吒说,我命由我不由天!不知道电子烟的命,能不能也由自己说了算?

英国医院开售电子烟!——电子烟的命,谁说了算?》有1个想法

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